Uploaded at Monday, November 13 2017 21:04:45 by Melissa N. Powell for Lighting Fixtures
Wall Sconces: Mostly used for adding ambience and decoration, a wall sconce is any kind of wall-mounted light fixture. It provides dimmer, less vibrant illumination and is therefore likely to be used in multiples down a hallway or near a front door.
Recessed Lighting: If space is an issue, recessed light fixtures are a great option, because they take up no space at all; a fixture is inserted directly into the ceiling. Because they are often used as accents in a larger space, such as a kitchen or living room, recessed bulbs are almost always used in multiples. Although not as common a use, they can also be inserted into floors and walls to provide additional brightness in dark spaces.
In the mid-19th century, as gas lighting caught on, branched ceiling fixtures called gasoliers (a portmanteau of gas and chandelier) were produced, and many candle chandeliers were converted. By the 1890s, with the appearance of electric light, some chandeliers used both gas and electricity. As distribution of electricity widened, and supplies became dependable, electric-only chandeliers became standard. Another portmanteau word, electrolier, was formed for these, but nowadays they are most commonly called chandeliers. Some are fitted with bulbs shaped to imitate candle flames, for example those shown below in Epsom and Chatsworth, or with bulbs containing a shimmering gas discharge. The world's largest English Glass chandelier,(Hancock Rixon & Dunt and probably F. & C. Osler) is located in the Dolmabahçe Palace in Istanbul. It has 750 lamps and weighs 4.5 tons. Dolmabahçe has the largest collection of British and Baccarat crystal chandeliers in the world, and one of the great staircases has balusters of Baccarat crystal. More complex and elaborate chandeliers continued to be developed throughout the 18th and 19th centuries, but the widespread introduction of gas and electricity had devalued the chandelier's appeal as a status symbol.
Architectural lighting design focuses on three fundamental aspects of the illumination of buildings or spaces. The first is the aesthetic appeal of a building, an aspect particularly important in the illumination of retail environments. Secondly, the ergonomic aspect: the measure of how much of a function the lighting plays. Thirdly is the energy efficiency issue to ensure that light is not wasted by over-illumination, either by illuminating vacant spaces unnecessarily or by providing more light than needed for the aesthetics or the task.