Uploaded by: Gladys Getz
Label: Lighting Fixtures, More >>
Uploaded at: Friday, November 17 2017 14:57:03
In the mid-19th century, as gas lighting caught on, branched ceiling fixtures called gasoliers (a portmanteau of gas and chandelier) were produced, and many candle chandeliers were converted. By the 1890s, with the appearance of electric light, some chandeliers used both gas and electricity. As distribution of electricity widened, and supplies became dependable, electric-only chandeliers became standard. Another portmanteau word, electrolier, was formed for these, but nowadays they are most commonly called chandeliers. Some are fitted with bulbs shaped to imitate candle flames, for example those shown below in Epsom and Chatsworth, or with bulbs containing a shimmering gas discharge. The world's largest English Glass chandelier,(Hancock Rixon & Dunt and probably F. & C. Osler) is located in the Dolmabahçe Palace in Istanbul. It has 750 lamps and weighs 4.5 tons. Dolmabahçe has the largest collection of British and Baccarat crystal chandeliers in the world, and one of the great staircases has balusters of Baccarat crystal. More complex and elaborate chandeliers continued to be developed throughout the 18th and 19th centuries, but the widespread introduction of gas and electricity had devalued the chandelier's appeal as a status symbol.
Major reductions in the cost of lighting occurred with the discovery of whale oil and kerosene. The potential of electric light as a new building material was recognized in the 1920s and became a useful design tool by the mid-century. Skillful lighting allowed for theatricality, narrative, and a new emphasis on structure and space. Gas lighting was economical enough to power street lights in major cities starting in the early 1800s, and was also used in some commercial buildings and in the homes of wealthy people. The gas mantle boosted the luminosity of utility lighting and of kerosene lanterns.
Your beautiful and functional kitchen island isn’t complete without a matching light fixture. When done right, kitchen island lighting enhances the ambience while providing effective task lighting at the same time. Your first consideration when choosing island lighting should be color and style. You’ll want to find a pendant, a chandelier or another form of lighting that complements the design of your kitchen. While your island lighting can become the main focal point of the room, if you already have a grand range hood or detailed backsplash that’s worthy of design envy, you may want your lights to simply draw the eyes to these instead.
The more transparent the lighting fixture is, the higher efficacy. Shading the light will normally decrease efficiency but increase the directionality and the visual comfort probability.
The PH-lamps are a series of light fixtures designed by Danish designer and writer Poul Henningsen from 1926 onwards. The lamp is designed with multiple concentric shades to eliminate visual glare, only emitting reflected light, obscuring the light source.